Pomiń polecenia Wstążki
Przeskocz do głównej zawartości
Przeskocz do głównego menu

 Abstrakty w języku angielskim

ROK 2019


Paweł Kubicki, Mikołaj Pawlak, Adriana Mica, Anna Horolets

Porażka w polityce publicznej

Policy failure

In the article, we critically assess the hitherto conceptualizations of policy failure. We define various forms of failure and point to its potential causes. We propose to treat failure as a phenomenon that occurs in various phases of creating, implementing, and evaluating of policy. We apply the recently presented policy stream approach to study policy failure. We widen this approach by pointing to the critical junctures requiring special attention of the policy process actors. We also include the recent developments in ignorance studies. Additionally, we point to two following issues. First, we analyse a case when failure is not just a risk but it is the designed and the most probable outcome of an action. Second, we bring to the fore the role of the policy target group and its capability to influence the policy, its success or failure. It is a conceptual paper, in which the theoretical models are illustrated by the selected policies targeting persons with disabilities and refugees.

Keywords: failure, policy, ignorance, disability, refugees


Małgorzata Roszkowska

Modele koordynacji lokalnych usług publicznych w kontekście ekonomii kosztów transakcyjnych

Local public service provision models in the context of the transaction costs economics

The theoretical purpose of the study is to discuss both the category of transaction costs and models for the coordination of local public services, with a particular emphasis put on municipal services. The application purpose is to indicate the possibility of using postulates of the transaction costs economics to make decisions related to the economic make or buy dilemma in the area of choice between the market, hierarchy and hybrid. The article analyses the selected literature in the field of new institutional economics and public finance. Literature studies and the analysis of the results of academic research conducted in the United States and selected European countries have shown that the assumptions of the transaction costs economics can be the basis for making efficient decisions regarding the selection of models for the coordination of local public services.

Keywords: local government, transaction costs, local public services, local public service provision models, municipal services


Wojciech Morawski  

Generations of reformers in the Polish people’s republic and their intellectual heritage

The drive towards reforms in the area of economic policy is permanent. The need of reforms is a practically never abandoned subject. The only exceptions tend to be periods when the status quo is accepted, and it is its consolidation that is being discussed. Things did not look any different in the times of the Polish People’s Republic (PPR). The rhythm of subsequent reform attempts determined the chronology of the development of the situation. The author set himself two goals: chronological ordering and typologisation of reform efforts in the PPR and presentation of the continuation of certain ways of thinking at the turn of the year 1989. Typologisation was assumed to concern ways of thinking rather than specific people and thus, it is not a biographic guide to reform circles.

Keywords: socialist economy, economic reforms, the Polish People’s Republic


Marta Budkowska  

Poland and the European Banking Union: to join or to wait?

The aim of the article is to analyze the opportunities and risks for Poland related to the banking union. Opting in would allow Poland to strengthen integration with the European Union. Its participation in the SSM as a host country could translate into enhancing the positive image of the Polish banking market for foreign investors. Considered as a response to the global financial crisis and a mechanism to tighten the integration of the euro area, the banking union is still an incomplete project that does not include all EU Member States. Its third pillar, i.e. the Single Deposit Guarantee Scheme (SDGS), is yet to start operating. Therefore, in the case of Poland, the so-called close cooperation should be preceded by a balance of benefits and costs.

Keywords: European Union, banking union, financial system, opt-in


Kacper Zalewski 

Rezerwa obowiązkowa w sektorze bankowym  

The fractional reserve banking system

At the beginning of the 17th century the first public bank was established in Amsterdam. Its primary aim was to ensure high quality of the currency in circulation. Additionally, it provided a vault service to the citizens and organizations, e.g. trading companies. During first years a great attention was put on the security of the deposits, yet within next periods the bank started providing external financing, which accompanied with poor economic conditions led to the insolvency of the bank in the 19th century. The example presents two banking systems – full and fractional reserve. The full reserve requires from a bank keeping all deposits all the time, while the fractional reserve requires keeping a safe level of deposits to ensure smooth operating of the business. At the same time, a monetary system developed, form the full gold standard to the issuer guarantee only. These two subjects have a lot in common and should not be analysed separately, which is done during public debate nowadays, and should be both considered while thinking about money supply and economic disturbances. Any law changes in the mandatory reserve area should be considered with respect to the monetary policy and other baking system aspects.

Keywords: banking, full-reserve banking, fractional-reserve banking


Ewa Jagodzińska-Komar  

Influence of the digital economy on dissemination of non-cash trading

The aim of the article is to assess the influence of the digital economy on the popularisation of non-cash trading in Poland as well as to indicate actions intended to help Poland join the group of digitalisation leaders. What is drawn attention to in the first place is the establishment on the Polish market of a new entity – the Polish Cashless Foundation, which is responsible for disseminating the idea of non-cash trading through the development of a payment cards accepting network. The article describes the position of Poland against the background of other member states of the European Union in terms of the digitalisation progress in 2017. One of the elements which could improve the DESI index (the digital economy and society index) is the development of electronic administration, which is assessed subsequently. The article proceeds to present the results of research concerning digital payment innovations conducted by two largest international payment organizations, VISA and Master Card, which shows that Polish society is more and more willing to make use of innovative payment instruments.

Keywords: mobile payments, Polish Cashless Foundation, electronic administration, single digital market, Digital Economy and Society Index (DESI)


Anastazja Gajda

Interoperacyjność unijnych systemów informacyjnych w zakresie bezpieczeństwa, ochrony granic i zarządzania migracjami

Interoperability of EU information systems for security, border protection and migration management

In recent years, the European Union (EU) has experienced an increase in irregular border crossings. The checks on persons at the EU’s external borders should therefore be more effective to improve, i.a., efficient management of migration flows. It has become a particularly urgent need to join up and strengthen in a comprehensive manner the EU’s information tools for border management and preventing and combating illegal immigration. The article concerns the issue of ensuring interoperability between EU centralized information systems in the area of freedom, security and justice. It turns out that the existing systems do not cooperate with each other. For this purpose, interoperability components need to be established: European search portal, shared biometric matching service, common identity repository and multiple-identity detector.

Keywords: European Union, information systems, protection of external borders, interoperability, area of freedom, security and justice


Magdalena Mazurek  

Generation Z as a challenge for the traditional corporate culture in Poland

The objective of the paper is to analyze the skills and attitudes of Generation Z in Poland in order to update and systematize data on features of all generations that are active in the Polish labour market. The issue deserves research due to the specific perception of work and business by young people, which, by affecting their motivation, forces companies to modify their operations. Employee engagement programmes must be adjusted to the skills and preferences of individualists, who are proficient in Internet use, but inconsistent in their decisions or endeavors and not prepared for teamwork. Short attention span and short-lived interests of young staff, which require a kinesthetic, multimodal working environment, may disrupt a traditional company culture. Communication with Generation Z, used to ongoing communication and co-creating, is a serious challenge to managers. Low levels of soft skills and economic literacy may undermine the benefits from excellent adaptability of the young generation. Tabular summaries of generation-based characteristics will be presented. The paper is based on the literature on the older generations as well as reports and statistics on Generation Z.

Keywords: Generation Z, job market, skills, motivation