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 Issue 31 (march 2018)​​

Bogdan Nogalski
WSB University in Gdańsk, Faculty of Finance and Management

Przemysław Niewiadomski
University of Zielona Góra, Faculty of Economics and Management

Agnieszka Szpitter
University of Gdansk, Faculty of Management

“We tell people that if nobody has mocked even one thought of theirs, this means that they are not creative enough”
As a consequence of broad recognition of creativity as an element related to the development of business models under the conditions of a variable environment that is difficult to forecast, it has been appreciated by management sciences. In the context of the above, research was commenced in order to attempt to provide an answer to the question: is the scope and type of business models implemented by manufacturers a derivative of the creativity level assimilated by them? In connection with the above, it was necessary to:
– from the theoretical perspective – using the method of reconstruction and interpretation of the Polish and foreign literature on the subject – present creativity as a factor contributing dynamics to the development of business models;
– from the design perspective – determine which business models are adopted by micro, small and medium-sized production enterprises operating in the Polish farm machines sector;
– from the empirical perspective – establish to what extent implementation of the mentioned business models is determined by creativity desired by manufacturers.
This publication has been created as an effect of the authors’ thoughts and searches; first of all, their practical experience and activity in management practice.

Keywords: creativity, flexible business models, strategy, agricultural machinery sector
JEL Classification Codes: M530, M510, L620, O340

Anna Łaszkiewicz
Management Department, Faculty of Marketing, University of Lodz

Due to the development of technology clients have almost a limitless possibility of becoming creative individuals who, both independently and in a group, are willing to share their creativity, knowledge and skills. Enterprises are increasingly and more consciously reaching for this potential. The article discusses the phenomenon of co-creation of products and services with consumers, possible forms of using intellectual capital of consumers in companies and the awareness of these trends among Polish managers based on the research carried out by the author.

Keywords: consumer behavior, co-creation, business model, prosumer
JEL Classification Codes: M30, M31, O3

Celina Sołek-Borowska
Collegium of Management and Finance, Warsaw School of Economics

Despite the wealth of studies related to team creativity, there is a general concern that the field still offers fuzzy indications about how team creativity (TC) can be supported within organizations. Creativity is enacted in the individual, within teams and within networks. Team creativity depends on creative individuals, processes, situations, the culture and the interaction of these factors. A growing number of organizations rely heavily on team creativity to enhance their capacity for generating new ideas. To enable knowledge sharing in teams in order to offer creativity within such a team, members must have access to an arena in which to engage in interpersonal dialogues to share their experiences, suggestions and knowledge with one another. Therefore, the objective of the study is firstly to find out what is understood by creativity of the team in terms of a process and outcome and secondly, to place the knowledge sharing process within the field of team creativity. A literature review was used to gather evidence about the key concepts in the fields of management, organization and creativity.

Keywords: team creativity, knowledge sharing, creativity as a process and outcome
JEL Classification Codes: D83, M12

Joanna Radomska
Wroclaw University of Economics, Strategic Management Department

This article investigates an organisational creativity reflected by a strategic approach. An approach called visionary, in which environment changes can be anticipated and created, was analysed. As creativity seems an inherent aspect of an organisation’s activity – at the organisational and the conceptual levels, it could be reflected in an innovative development concept. Hence, the purpose of this article is to indicate implications related to strategy implementation by companies with a visionary strategic approach. As shown by the research results, the degree of strategic goal achievement in that group of companies should be recognised as high. It is negatively correlated with different areas of operational risk (intra-organizational) being present in the strategy implementation process. The highest level of correlation was indicated for the area related to employees, who are the basis of creative potential of every organisation, especially those with a strategic approach.

Keywords: visionary strategic approach, strategy execution, creativity
JEL Classification Codes: L25, L21

Magdalena Rzemieniak
Faculty of Management, Lublin University of Technology

Post-reality is a result of technological changes in the marketing environment. This phenomenon has a great impact on creative enterprises. The objective of the study is to characterise the impact of the newest trends in the marketing environment on creative businesses. The article presents the results of the research on the influence of post-reality on the operating strategies of creative businesses. The study was supplemented with examples in the form of case studies. The study uses secondary sources obtained with the desk research method and proprietary participating observations.

Keywords: post-reality, creative business
JEL Classification Codes: M0, M3, M2

Wioletta Mierzejewska
Collegium of Management and Finance, Warsaw School of Economics

The paper addresses innovative performance of transnational corporations (TNCs). Its goal is to find out whether innovation is typical of transnational corporations and what are its sources in TNCs. The goal has been attained by analysing the rankings of the world’s most innovative companies. Three groups of transnational corporations featuring in these rankings have been distinguished: old giants, innovators with a past, and young players. Conclusions on the innovative performance of transnational corporations have been enriched with the analysis of sources of innovation in these companies, R&D outlays included.

Keywords: innovation, transnational corporations, research and development
JEL Classification Codes: O30, F23, L14

Marzena Starnawska
Department of Entrepreneurship and Business Law, Gdańsk University of Technology

Responding to the new phenomena in entrepreneurship ecosystems in Poland, the author undertakes the study that aims to explore experiences of the participants of (pre)accelerator programme for start-ups. Clipster is a business acceleration and incubation programme, where participants have a unique co-living opportunity and work on their new venture ideas. With phenomenological interviews with six nascent entrepreneurs – participants working on their new venture ideas and employment of inductive research approach, the author uses grounded theory analysis methods. The results provide 4 key categories that reflect effectuation heuristics. The findings contribute to acceleration and incubation literature by providing insights into the interactive and dynamic nature on the micro level of individual and interpersonal behaviours and processes among the programme participants.

Keywords: accelerator, business incubation, nascent entrepreneurship, entrepreneurship, start-up, lived experiences, effectuation, idea development, heuristics
JEL Classification Codes: L26, M13, O31, L10, L29

Ewa Stańczyk-Hugiet
Department of Strategy and Management Methods, Faculty of Management, Computer Science and Finance, Wrocław University of Economics

This paper explores the ambiguous nature of organizational routines in regard to generating innovation or innovation routine. Considering the dual character of routine, we conceptualize that routines have inherently a potential to drive changes, therefore, organizational routines should be considered as a trigger of innovation. In order to exploit organizational routines as a vehicle for innovation, managers should be aware that micro and macro level factors influence the dynamics of routines. Hence, to design proper organizational settings managers should learn about the mechanisms activating learning processes as essential for new knowledge generation as well as for novelty generation through organization built on a routine system.

Keywords: organizational routines, change, stability, innovation routine, micro and macro antecedents
JEL Classification Codes: L22, L25

Karina Sachpazidu-Wójcicka
University of Bialystok, Faculty of Economics and Management

Innovation is one of the key sources in obtaining competitive advantage by enterprises. The ability to innovate is generally accepted as a critical success factor for competitiveness and firms’ performance. The paper discusses cooperation for innovation and its influence on enterprises’ innovativeness level. The main aim of the article is to determine the relationship between cooperation for innovation and innovativeness of the surveyed companies, which is investigated empirically. The paper discusses the channels and level of cooperation taking place in enterprises corresponding to its sources, specific character and determining the significance of the impact of cooperation for innovation on the actual level of innovativeness. The specific objectives of the article relate to examining what kind of cooperation for innovation occurs in enterprises and whether there is a relationship between the cooperation and innovativeness level of the enterprise. The study is based on a survey of firms (n = 100) located in Poland. The article first establishes the research framework, then deduces the research hypothesis and finally describes the analysis tools, the sample structure and statistical methods. The analysis has been done with the SPSS software. The statistical method used in the survey is multiple step regression. The study has determined the positive relationship between cooperation and innovativeness of the surveyed enterprises. The relation between cooperation and innovativeness is positive concerning the channels of vertical cooperation, especially in the area of cooperation with suppliers of equipment, materials, components or software. These findings suggest that the measurement of cooperation for innovation and its channels should be innovativeness and competitiveness.

Keywords: cooperation for innovation, innovativeness, vertical cooperation, horizontal cooperation
JEL Classification Codes: 030, C50

Piotr Bartkowiak
Faculty of Management, Poznań University of Economics and Business

Ireneusz P. Rutkowski
Faculty of Management, Poznań University of Economics and Business

The publication sets out to propose a new research approach – one that could significantly improve the maturity measurement of product innovation processes in businesses. As detailed here, the concept for measuring the maturity of an innovation and new product marketing process reflects a specific research attitude towards new product development. Importantly, too, the concept sees those approaches as guiding and directing the studies into the matrix- and grid-based methods, which are developed using new analytical tools. What is presented here is an overview of methodologies with their relevant techniques and procedural algorithms (methodology in a pragmatic sense).

Keywords: maturity of the process, innovations, product
JEL Classification Codes: D81, O14, O31, O32

Patrycja Klimas
Management Theory Department, University of Economics in Katowice

This paper presents the results of the research on key resources exploited under business models of video game developers. The main attention is paid to the identification and hierarchizing of key resources, as well as their specific types. It should be noticed that the reported study takes into account diversification of video game developers in terms of monetization models exploited, i.e. premium, freemium, or hybrid, which seems to be novel. In general, the findings locate people together with their tacit, experience-based knowledge at the top of the key resources hierarchy. Nevertheless, the results show that there are differences in perception and exploitation of the key resources among the considered types of game developers. Interestingly, only those with the premium monetization model point at tacit organizational knowledge as a specific type of key resources exploited under their business model. Moreover, the identified relational resources – although not considered in the business model canvas approach – are acknowledged only by developers using the hybrid monetization model. Last but not least, physical resources are seen as non-key ones by all the considered types of game developers.

Keywords: business models, BMC, key resources, value creation, creative industries, video game industry, video game developers
JEL Classification Codes: M21, L21