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 Issue 33 (September 2018)​​​​​


Przemysław Borkowski, Monika Bąk
Chair of Transport Economics, Faculty of Economics, University of Gdansk

The objective of this paper is to assess short and long-term consequences of the new regulatory framework in the European Union road haulage market as proposed by the European Commission in the “Mobility package”. The initiative comprises a number of regulations aimed at technical and social aspects of the road haulage market. This study is based on qualitative research and takes into consideration different perspectives of expert knowledge. On the basis of their own methodological background (the evaluation framework and assessment criteria) the authors compare the expected impacts of the regulations on large and small transport enterprises. The assessment is based on a focused group study within Polish and Hungarian transport companies and several external experts’ views (the list of the consulted experts is given in the acknowledgments section) and finalises with conclusions for different EU regions: the central and peripheral EU countries. The aim of this research is to show different aspects of the impact of the proposed measures on different types of transport businesses in Europe and to demonstrate diverse and sometimes opposite effects. The impacts are assessed against different enterprise types (small vs large transport companies) and a company’s base of operation geographical location (core vs periphery). While the Commission states that the regulation is aimed primarily at equalizing companies’ competitive chances, this study argues that the proposal may in fact lead to the more fragmented and less competitive internal road transport market.

Keywords: road haulage market, Mobility package, EU internal transport market, social regulations in transport
JEL Classification Codes: R40, O30

Tomasz Bieliński, Agnieszka Ważna
Faculty of Economics, University of Gdańsk

Rising mobility of societies and the urban sprawl cause the need to shape passengers’ behaviour accordingly. For urbanised areas, the biggest challenge is to overcome the problem of dominant private cars usage. Bike-sharing systems are considered to be a successful tool for the popularisation of alternative ways of travelling. Recently Chinese companies have developed new solutions to bike-sharing systems that proved to be successful in China and could be implemented in Europe. However, their implementation will be associated with challenges for municipal authorities and companies conducting the business. The aim of the paper is to identify major advantages and challenges resulting from the implementation of the Chinese solutions in Europe or expansion of bike-sharing companies to Europe. The scientific method used in the paper is the case study of the Chinese bike-sharing market with the special focus on market leaders Mobike and Ofo. Despite existing obstacles, it is possible to succeed in introducing the new generation of bike-sharing systems in Europe. As Chinese enterprises have already entered the European market, it is crucial to make policy makers aware of the obstructions.

Keywords: sustainable transportation, urban transport, bicycles, public bikes, Ofo, Mobike, environmentally friendly transport, dockless bikes, passenger transport innovation
JEL Classification Codes: R41, R42

Marzenna Dębowska-Mróz, Ewa Ferensztajn-Galardos,
Renata Krajewska, Andrzej Rogowski
Faculty of Transport and Electrical Engineering, University of Technology and Humanities in Radom

An efficient transport system in cities requires rational separation of transport tasks. Determining the mode of travel and preferences of the choice of means of transport enables shaping communication behaviours. Research on the mobility of public transport is of particular importance. Filling measurements are the basis of many analyzes, enabling the characteristics of passenger flows in the quantitative and qualitative aspect, performance of transport efficiency assessment of individual lines. The aim of the article is to present the results of a survey conducted among drivers of public transport buses. These tests included information on filling and passenger exchange in the means of transport of individual bus lines in Radom. The results of the surveys carried out in households were also presented, thanks to which the motivation of the source-destination journey of the inhabitants of
Radom with the use of public transport was analyzed.

Keywords: bus, commute, public transportation, vehicle occupancy indicator, bus occupancy, traffic, transportation demand, transportation modes, travel behaviour, travel demand, average number of journey, destination of journey
JEL Classification Codes: R41, R410

Elżbieta Macioszek, Damian Lach
Faculty of Transport, Silesian University of Technology, Katowice

An indispensable element in the development of urbanized areas of individual agglomerations is the change in the structure of transport systems in such a way as to meet their needs. Depending on the nature of the area, the use of infrastructure is strongly related to the mobility and transport preferences of its residents. In the case of the Upper Silesian Agglomeration, the agglomeration rail system is not developed in a way that corresponds to its potential. The article presents the concept of establishing a fast agglomeration railway as a complement to the existing transport systems in the Upper Silesian Agglomeration.

Keywords: urban rail lines, transport system, demand, transportation planning

Barbara Pawłowska, Michał Suchanek

One of the priorities of the “Europe 2020” strategy is to combat climate change and to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. The key elements for the climate policy framework for the European Commission for 2020 are as follows: (1) reducing GHG emissions by 40% in comparison to the level in 1990; (2) increasing the share of renewable energy in the use of final energy to 27%; (3) increasing the energetic efficiency by 27%. Those are ambitious goals which will require the Member States to increase their efforts in all the sectors of the economy. In 2015 the GHG emissions in the EU fell by 23.7% in comparison to the level in 1990. All the sectors, apart from the transport sector contributed to the emission reduction in the years 1990–2015. The transport emission increased by 13.3% in that period in comparison to the year 1990, which is particularly worrisome. This is important because the fuels use in the transport sector contributed to approximately 20% of all the GHG emissions in the EU in 2015. The article presents the factors and the tools which significantly affect the achievement of the goals set in the Green Paper: a 2030 framework for energy and climate policies, which concern the transport sector and the indicated guidelines and instruments supporting them. The road transport will be extensively analysed as it is the transport mode which shows an extraordinary growth tendency and it is a vital barrier in the achievement of the goals set in the area of “Climate change and GHG emission reduction”. The article presents the results of the research, which show the impact of various identified tools on the achievement of the three priorities of the climate policy. The multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used, in which the dependent variables were: the GHG emission levels, the use of renewable energy and the energy intensity of transport. The results were calculated based on the data from 28 Member States and the model was verified.

Keywords: transport, sustainable development, transport policy, GHGs, energy efficiency, alternative fuels.
JEL Classification Codes: Q28, Q58, R41

Martin Smoliner
Institute for Railway Engineering and Transport Economy, Graz University of Technology

Stefan Walter
Department of Transport and Structures, Province of Styria

Stefan Marschnig
Institute for Railway Engineering and Transport Economy, Graz University of Technology

The gradual liberalisation of the European railway market has so far mainly been assessed regarding its effect on the grade of competition and market access. However, one major impact has not received much attention yet: the effects of the liberalisation on the joint development of timetables and infrastructure. This is especially crucial for countries that align their railway network according to the requirements of the Integrated Timetable (ITF). The implementation of the ITF requires a longterm planning process and network-wide cost-intensive infrastructure measures. Contrary to that, open access traffic can neither be planned in the long-term, nor is it coherent with the ITF. Recent conflicts show that the assignment of train paths for open access traffic considerably affects the system of the ITF, calling for significant timetable and/or infrastructure adaptions. For an efficient and sustainable railway system, a holistic approach is needed allowing for a combination of open access and the requirements of the ITF. To derive a suitable methodology the status quo of the ITF-implementation and open access traffic is analysed in Austria, the Czech Republic and the Netherlands. Based on these findings, three 98 Martin Smoliner, Stefan Walter, Stefan Marschnig options are identified on how open access can be integrated in an ITF-system according to the EU legislation. Advantages and disadvantages are discussed and finally the optimal procedure in terms of a sustainable network development is recommended.

Keywords: integrated timetable, long-term infrastructure development, fourth railway package, liberalisation, public service obligations, open access, self-sustaining operators
JEL–Classification Codes: R; R4; R42; R48

Paweł Sobczak
WSB University, Poland

Public transport is one of the most important elements of the economy and social space development in which it is located. Issues related to its proper organisation are very often the responsibility of transport companies, which must operate and carry out their activities within the principles of the economy, that is, the principles of managing a service company. An important element of an efficient and effective functioning of a transport company is the quality of the provided services. An element significantly affecting the quality of the services offered is, inter alia, an appropriately organised network of connections offered by the carrier. This network in an efficient and interference-resistant manner must facilitate transport in a given area. In the article, using the graph theory and the simulation method, the structure of network connections of a railway carrier operating in the Małopolska region (Koleje Małopolskie sp. z o.o.) in Poland was analysed. The aim of the analysis was to obtain
information about the current condition and parameters of the network offered by the carrier. The
conducted analysis made it possible to assess the current state as well as within the conducted research
and it proposed to modify the existing network of connections in order to improve its parameters.
The carrier’s network is used, inter alia, to co-create public transport in the region, and the structure
of the connections network and its appropriate planning can have a significant impact on the
functioning of the company.

Keywords: public transport, rail transport, transport networks, Koleje Małopolskie sp. z o.o., railway network
JEL Classification Codes: L92

Paweł Zagrajek, Adam Hoszman
Collegium of Management and Finance, Warsaw School of Economics

Ground handling services constitute an important element of airline operations and significantly affect traffic stability and punctuality. In this article, the existing and potential impact of airline handling on air traffic volatility is reviewed from the point of view of airlines and ground operations. The issues of airline expectations towards ground handling agents (including handling rates, turnaround time, passenger services, and ramp services) are explored. In addition, the impact of an airline’s schedule and the volatility of its operations on the performance and operational requirements of handling agents is discussed, including actions required by handling agents in response to the above challenges. The mechanism of how the volatility of an airline’s schedule and its operations may impact the volatility of ground operations (directly and indirectly) is considered. The statistics of airline delays caused by ground operations are presented and discussed. The issue of the correctness of air traffic delays reporting by airlines is investigated. Furthermore, this article investigates internal factors of ground handling agents and their impact on air traffic volatility. The existing and potential considerations discussed include staff management issues (in particular, employee rotation resulting in staff shortages and service quality, including punctuality), resources management, the ground service support equipment (including new developments aiming at limiting ground safety incidents), and their impact on performance.

Keywords: air traffic volatility, delays, on-time performance
JEL Classification Code: R41